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american holly flower

A pyramid-shaped evergreen tree with spines on its foliage, American holly blooms in May or June (depending on where you live). Apply only one application of fertilizer a year. For a hedge or privacy screen, plant your American Hollies about five feet apart. We have temporarily closed our dried flower shop to concentrate on our Christmas Collection. Ilex Opaca – American Holly. The Satyr Hill excels when used in screens, hedges, and even as an individual specimen. American Hollies grow on mountain tops, in river valleys, on flood plains, and along coastlines. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. *Spotlight cultivars have been ranked on a scale of 1-5 for top holly attributes by Boyd Nursery Company nurserymen (5 being the best). Prices for Jersey Princess American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. American Holly will grow in nearly all soils. Its prickly leaves are a dark green color. Some other notable pairs are Jersey Princess & Jersey Knight, Emily Bruner & James Swan, Blue Princess & Blue Prince, and Blue Maid & Blue Stallion. The American holly, called the evergreen or Christmas holly (Ilex opaca Aiton) was named the state tree of Delaware on 1 May 1939. It has a density of 0.58 to 0.64. The American Holly is widely known as the hardiest broadleaf evergreen. Due to extensive cultivation of the American Holly by nurseryman and gardeners alike, there are currently over 1000 different cultivars, with more being patented every year (Holly Society of America). Because its mature form is more akin to the native American Holly species, it is not as suited for use in screens and hedges. If the wreath hasn’t been sprayed, you can recycle it in your tea cup. The American holly leaves tend to have a dark appearance and a more matte finish. By contrast, each female bloom has a green ovary (that is, a green "bump" in the center of its bloom). The tree makes a wonderful (and interesting) foundational shrub. The tree is also not picky in terms of soil requirements. All hollies bear flowers with four petals and four stamens. Holly (Ilex spp.) We also offer the male cultivar Jersey Knight. Male and female flowers are on separate trees, so trees of both sexes must be located within the same area to ensure fruit production. The European holly is smaller than the American holly, but closely resembles the American holly. Probably the most unusual female American Holly cultivar is the Maryland Dwarf (also called the Maryland Spreader). Instead the origin of this holly is much less exciting. Prices for Jersey Knight American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. Male flowers have four stamens, inserted on the base of the corolla, alternate with its lobes; filaments awl-shaped, exserted in the sterile, much shorter in the sterile flower; anthers attached at the back, oblong, introrse, two-celled, cells opening longitudinally. The corolla is white, with four petal-like lobes united at the base, obtuse, spreading, hypogynous, imbricate in bud. The fruit is a small red drupe 6–12 mm diameter containing four seeds; it is often persistent into winter. These bushes prefer moist, slightly acidic (near 5.0), organic soils commonly found in wetland areas, but are tough enough to handle heavier soils. Common Name(s): American Holly Tree. Cultivars include Jersey Princess, Miss Courtney, Morgan Gold, and Saytr Hill. [3][6][7], A ratio of three female plants to one male plant is required for ideal fruit production. *Spotlight cultivars have been ranked on a scale of 1-5 for top holly attributes by Boyd Nursery Company nurserymen (5 being the best). With remote spiny teeth, leaves are dull to dark yellow green and have great variation among trees. Winterberry holly is a native plant to the eastern United States and southeastern Canada, from Nova Scotia to Florida and west to Missouri. Flowers are only borne in late Spring, typically in May. Break up the soil to the finest consistency possible. Flower: Species is dioecious; dull green-white, male flowers on 3 to 7 flowered cymes, female flowers are solitary with a pleasant odor, appearing in late spring. Sometimes described as a prostrate shrub or groundcover shrub, the Maryland Dwarf has only modest red fruit production. Introduction: American holly is a broad-leaf evergreen with a beautiful shape, but with a variety of insect and disease problems.The tree offers clusters of red berries that persist throughout fall and winter. English holly (Ilex aquifolium) is one of the most common with its familiar glossy, dark-green spiky leaves and bright red berries used for Christmas displays. Native specimens found throughout the Appalachian Mountains have been found to withstand temperatures of -10°F, while cultivated varieties have been naturalized in Ohio down to -20°F. The larger the plant the faster the area will fill in. The tree has lustrous dark green leaves and handsome form. ; Chinese holly (I. cornuta) is one of the few types of holly shrubs that can actually produce berries without male pollination.These berries vary in color from red, dark orange to yellow. 40 to 50' in height with a spread of 18 to 40'; usually smaller, 15 to 30' in height is more reasonable under normal landscape conditions, takes a long time to get where it is going. The tree is ridiculously tough. bushes and trees are a diverse group that serve many needs within the garden, as well as making colorful holiday decorations. Male flowers stamens will have pollen-tipped anthers. [3][7][11], The wood is very pale, tough, close-grained, takes a good polish, and is used for whip-handles, engraving blocks and also cabinet work. The holly slowly forms a very wide mound in its habit, and only begrudgingly grows taller than 3’ in height. If planted in the right conditions and decently cared for some hollies can live up to 100 years or longer. 2 Female flowers have 4 non-functional stamens. American Holly. There are many plants in this category, including roses, geraniums, magnolias and hollyhock. The flower stem is hairy with a minute bract at base. Fruit display can be spectacular on good selections with a strong pollinator. Reportedly cold-hardy to -20°F, the tree can reach heights of 20-30’ and grow 15-20' wide. Like many male companion cultivars, the Edward J. Stevens was simply found among the same planted seedlings as its female counterpart. We also have balled and burlapped American Hollies available. It is found in sparse numbers in the northern part of its range from Cape Cod, Massachusetts, south to northern New Jersey (including southern Connecticut and southeastern New York). Branches covered with bright red fruit attract mockingbirds, robins, and other birds. There are many types (species) of holly. Dicots have, within the seed embryo of a flowering plant, a pair of leaves. The somewhat taller American holly (I. opaca) has oblong prickly leaves and usually red fruits. But Europeans brought demand for American Holly to a whole new level. The stamens surrounding the ovary on the female flower are non-functional and will not have pollen-tipped anthers. The Satyr Hill cultivar is one of the top five most popular varieties of female American Holly. We deliver throughout Ireland and the UK and our Bloom Boxes in … Specimen plant, grouping; requires male and female for fruit set; there are too many superior hollies to justify extensive use of this species but the list of cultivars is endless; on the east coast and south this is a favored plant; again, do not use seedlings; use one of many superior cultivars. Named after Mr. Klein’s niece, today the holly is considered one of the best of the more than 1000 American Holly cultivars. The wood is very pale, tough, close-grained, takes a good polish, and is used for whip-handles, engraving blocks and also cabinet work. According to the family, the tree had grown in the family garden and was monoecious, bearing flowers in the ratio of 10 female to 1 male. The sap is watery, and contains a bitter substance used as an herbal tonic. Pollination is not dependent on having the marketed counterpart, and any male that flowers at roughly the same time as the female holly will act as a berry pollinator with few exceptions. It is important to note, not all male/female names can be taken at face value. [9]The ideal yearly precipitation average for the species ranges from 102 cm to 165 cm. American holly tea does not contain caffeine. The roots are thick and fleshy. Typically, its trunk diameter reaches 50 cm (20 in), sometimes up to 120 cm (47 in). And, while holly tea is fine and dandy — for most, he says with envy — let me remind you: Don’t eat the berries. * Michael A. Dirr contends that the Croonenburg holly is a monoecious American Holly cultivar. Use a slow-release, granular fertilizer labeled especially for acidic soil-loving plants. It has arguably the most lustrous leaves of any of the top American Holly cultivars. The calyx is small, four-lobed, imbricate in the bud, acute, margins ciliate, persistent. American Holly is a fairly common understory tree, American Holly is easy to identify, with prickly evergreen leaves, smooth bark, and red fruits (on female trees) that last through the winter. 1. It can also be dyed and used as a substitute for ebony. The tree has a slow to medium growth rate. The hollies with which we are most familiar, due to their striking evergreen foliage used in Christmas displays, are English holly (Ilex aquifolium) and American holly (Ilex opaca). Flower vase by Longaberger, part of the American Holly Pattern, stands 8.25 inches tall, features a motif of holly leaves and red berries, made of resin, in great condition Description: Evergreen tree with smooth, leathery leaves. Size and quantity availability can be found at boydnursery.net. American Holly especially benefit from a yearly mulch of used coffee grounds. The tree can be difficult to train into having a central leader, but if special attention is given, the tree will have a strong pyramidal form. The leaves remain on the branches for two to three years, finally falling in the spring when pushed off by growing buds.[3][6][7]. The best American Holly cultivars can typically be reduced down to a particular set of characteristics – the tree’s habit, the degree of leaf luster, and the profusion of berries. Registered by Ronald E. Solt Greenhouses of Barto, Pennsylvania in 1998, this popular holly cultivar is a fairly prolific fruit-bearing tree and a faster grower when compared to the species. Since that point, the Jersey Knight has become much more than the companion to a single cultivar. Female flowers are dull white to yellow with a single green nodule (ovary and future berry) at the center. In the event that berries are not present, the only scientific way to confirm a holly’s sex is by studying its flowers. Buy Cheap Vegetable Seeds, Flower Seeds, Sweet Pea Seed, Potato Seeds and Rose Trees online American Holly [TRE20108] - Mature Height: 15-20 ft. It is considered to be a slow growing perennial evergreen. Registered by the Holly Society in 1970, the cultivar was named for the road on which the nursery is located - Satyr Hill. American Holly is the one found most often in Christmas wreaths with curly, pointy leaves. While there are several cultivars that might equal the cultivar on individual characteristics, there are very few that have achieved the level of popularity as the Jersey Princess. We monitor national weather conditions and temperatures for shipments. That means it stays green year-round, with no need for replanting every year, as with annuals. Like all hollies, it is dioecious, with separate male and female plants; only female plants produce the characteristic red berries. American holly is the only native North American holly that attains tree size. Prices for Satyr Hill American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. Planting: Plant your American Holly tree in an area that receives full to partial sunlight (4 to 8 hours of sunlight per day). We offer American Hollies in several rooted cutting packages, including the female cultivars Jersey Princess, Miss Courtney, Morgan Gold, and Satyr Hill. The difference can be seen by examining both the center of the flowers and the stamens. Scientific Name: Ilex opaca The custom is followed in North America, and holly and mistletoe are widely used for decoration of homes and churches. Our only similar species is Chinese Holly (Ilex cornuta), which has distinctively shaped leaves and is smaller in stature. Its typical adult size is 7-8’ tall with a 3-4’ spread over ten years. The Nellie R. Stevens & Edward J. Stevens hollies are an excellent example of this concept. Newly established plants will not flower for 4 to 7 years; prior to flowering there is no practical means of determining the gender of a plant. The Judy Evans holly was discovered by Theodore Klein in the Cave Hill Cemetery and Arboretum in 1940. Ranked attributes include leaf color (degree of dark green), luster, berry production, and trainability of a central leader. American Holly leaf – oblong-elliptic, spine-toothed or entire, leathery matte, dark green leaves. The tree also forms a thick canopy which offers protection for birds from predators and storms. The tree can reach heights of 30’. Due to extensive cultivation of the American Holly by nurseryman and gardeners alike, there are currently over 1000 different cultivars, with more being patented every year (Holly Society of America).The tree is ridiculously tough. With this pair, the Golden King is actually the female cultivar. The first scientific observation of the American Holly tree was recorded in 1744. Sometimes male and female nomenclature is deceptive. Our Holly Flower Corner die has been designed to cut out but stay in the card meaning that the petals of the flowers can be lifted to create a 3D effect on your proje Approx. Individual male flowers are about ¼" across, consisting of a short green calyx with 4 lobes, 4 greenish white or yellowish white petals, and 4 stamens. At maturity, holly trees reach a height of 35 to 50 feet and a width of 15 to 25 feet. The flowers are greenish white, small, borne in late spring in short pedunculate cymes from the axils of young leaves or scattered along the base of young branches. The tree also reproduces the "old fashioned way;" male and female flowers are produced on separate plants (dioecious reproduction). Flowers are small and white with four rounded petals, present April-June. [13], Holly fruit (drupes) appear late in the season, and whether due to the need to ripen or being a food of last resort, often last until midwinter. Like most others in the holly genus, American holly is dioecious. Holly is a plant. We ship via Priority Mail from zip-code 37378 and DO NOT ship plants west of the Rocky Mountains. Not a "tree" in the typical sense, the plant is considered to be the best dwarf form of American Holly. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. the same parent trees), each plant is distinctly and fundamentally different from one another. According to Michael A. Dirr's Manual of Woody Landscape Plants ... Amy, Angelica, Cardinal, Canary, Carolina, Croonenburg*, Farage, Goldie, Greenleaf, Howard, Jersey Princess, Judy Evans, Manig, Maryland Dwarf, Merry Christmas, Miss Courtney, Miss Helen, Morgan Gold, Old Heavy Berry, Satyr Hill, Stewart's Silver Crown, Wyetta. Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. In general little is known about inter-species variation in constituents or toxicity of hollies. In English poetry and English stories the holly is inseparably connected with the merry-making and greetings which gather around the Christmas time. Ranked attributes include leaf color (degree of dark green), luster, and trainability of central a leader. Growing Conditions: Full sun to part sun and well-drained soil. Inspite of numerous male cultivars released each year (Holly Society of America - Holly Cultivar Registrations), the Jersey Knight continues to be only consistently mentioned male cultivar. Throughout history, the appeal of bright red berries and lusterous evergreen leaves drove the popularity of the English Holly. The American Holly is considered one of the most popular trees in the world. The Morgan Gold can reach heights of 25’ at maturity. arenicola, or scrub holly, is found as a shrub component in xeric scrub habitats of the Florida peninsula. Holly Society of America - Holly Cultivar Registrations. Most of us are family with holly shrubs in the landscape and growing American holly trees (Ilex opaca) is a relatively easy endeavor.Read on to learn more about this holly species. American holly Aquifoliaceae Ilex opaca Aiton symbol: ILOP Leaf: Alternate, simple, evergreen, elliptical, 2 to 4 inches long, spiny toothed margin, thickened and leathery, shiny dark green above, much paler below. For an idea of your plant zone please visit the USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map. [10], The flowers are pollinated by insects, including bees, wasps, ants, and night-flying moths. Dig a hole about 8 to 12 inches in diameter, with a depth no deeper than the original soil line on the stem. These attractive, broad-leaf evergreen trees grow 15-50’ tall. Gaps in foliage fill in faster than other top cultivars, and the central leader is less prone to damage. Possibly its only criticism is its more olive-green leaf color, which is more akin to the native species; however, this criticism is subjective, as many prefer the more native-like coloration. ], Ilex opaca is often cultivated by plant nurseries for use as a broadleaf evergreen ornamental plant, planted as a shrub or slower growing ornamental tree. [8], Ilex opaca typically grows as an understory tree in moist forests of the east-central, southeastern, and south-central United States. We are so excited to stock the most gorgeous collection of dried and preserved flowers delivered to us weekly from the markets in Holland. Holly is a popular winter Christmas and holiday season decoration. It is included in the dicot (dicotyledonous) family category. American holly is a slow grower and typically matures to a height of 30 feet (but may be taller in the wild). Over 1,000 cultivars have been selected, including plants selected for cold tolerance ('Cobalt', a male cultivar, is able to tolerate temperatures as low as −32 °C), growth form (e.g. The tree has dark green, lustrous leaves with five to ten spines. With great habit, heavy fruiting, and consistently-colored dark green foliage through winter, the holly was bred for its landscaping prowess. This description is nebulous when compared to an account from Mr. Samuel H. Thrasher of Greenbrier Farms - the nursery who purchased the original tree and ultimately introduced it in 1934. This North American native holly needs a pollinator to produce berries, so make sure you have both a male and female plant. Common names are from state and federal lists. Thick, and slightly pyramidal in shape, the American Holly, Ilex opaca, provides shelter year-round, food for birds and pollinators and decorations for our houses — and is beautiful. This time-frame is normally within one week. It can be found in most local nurseries and garden centers. American Holly Information. The cultivar is more ranging and open in habit than other popular cultivars, reaching heights approaching 40' at full maturity. the Edward J. Stevens is not simply a male clone of the female Nellie R. Stevens. The branchlets are stout, green at first and covered with rusty down, later smooth and brown. The pollen is light/pale yellow in appearance. By their nature, cultivated varieties (cultivars) are genetically distinct plants selected for a particular trait or combination of reliable characteristics. It was registered with the Holly Society of America as number 4-61. Because all hollies are dioecious (either male or female), any holly sporting berries during the winter, will be female. English holly (I. aquifolium), a tree growing to 15 metres (nearly 50 feet) tall, bears shining spiny dark evergreen leaves and usually red fruits. American Holly is native to this country. Ilex opaca, the American holly, is a species of holly, native to the eastern and south-central United States, from coastal Massachusetts south to central Florida, and west to southeastern Missouri and eastern Texas.[3][4]. Cedar Waxwings will strip the trees of fruit if they are not already bare during their northward migration. There is not a single male American Holly cultivar more popular or well-known than the Jersey Knight. The Holly plant does grow pretty slow, but can eventually attain a height of around 30-50 feet in a compact pyramid shape. Cultivated holly varieties will often be marketed with their gender equivalent tree. Leaves of some holly species are used by some cultures to make daily tea. Does not tolerate poor drainage under cultivation. By comparison, female flowers will have a single green nodule (ovary) at the flower’s center. It is pollution tolerant. Discovered by J. M. Morgan and Mrs. T. A. Dar on Morgan Farm in Rowan Township, North Carolina in 1902, the holly was later introduced officially in 1959. [3][7] Ilex opaca var. produce fruits that range in color from black to bright red or yellow Enjoys good, moist, loose, acidic, well-drained soil. All cultivars that we sell are asexually propagated. It is little wonder that when the European colonists landed in the New World, they brought their love of holly among their many traditions. Prior to their arrival, American Holly leaves had been used by Native Americans to make tea to treat cough, and berries had been used to make buttons. The pistil on female flowers has a superior ovary, four-celled, rudimentary in staminate flowers; style wanting, stigma sessile, four-lobed; ovules one or two in each cell. It is a vigorous grower with a compact, upright habit. Jersey Knight - It is difficult to identify another comparably popular American Holly male cultivar. Each ovary will become a future berry. [3][7], Leaves from the American holly can be used to make a tea-like beverage. Prices for Morgan Gold American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. Ilex opaca. Zone 5 to 9. It is native to the eastern and central U.S., most frequently found in moist woods, forest bottomlands and swamp peripheries plus some coastal dunes (e.g., Cape Cod down the Atlantic Coast) from Massachusetts to West Virginia to Ohio to southeastern Missouri south to Texas and Florida. This species is easily identified because it is the only native U.S. h… American Holly fruits and flowers (Ilex opaca). Berry-like, dull red rounded drupe, fruit is borne singly on .25" long stalks, maturing in October and persisting into winter. Plant one plant for ever 2 linear feet. A typical specimen will be about 2’ tall and 10’ wide after ten years. These species are Yerba mate (I. paraguariensis), Ilex guayusa, Kuding (Ilex kaushue), Yaupon (I. vomitoria) and others. A male pollinator must be nearby in order to produce the beautiful red berries we are all familiar with on female trees. One male can pollenize several females. New York. Male and female flowers are staminate in 3 to 9 flowered cymes; pistillate solitary; male flowers are dull white with yellow pollen tipped anthers; males are about the latest evergreen holly to flower around May. Leaves (5-10 cm or 2-4 in) have many spine-tipped teeth, dull green above and yellow-green beneath. The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. From the Roman and Druid winter solstice traditions to the eventual European Christian traditions, the symbolism and colorful nature of the evergreen holly in the dead of winter was constant. Fruit is Indian Yellow (6) (Royal Horticultural Society Colour Chart). Christmas Holly. This pyramidal tree features dense foliage and grows less than 12 inches annually, making it a slow-growing tree. It is abundant further south on the Gulf and Atlantic lowlands. It has greenish-white flowers bloom April-June (male flowers in 3-12 flowered clusters and female flowers solitary or in 2's or 3's). The easiest way to identify a male holly from a female holly is to look for berries. Producing large red berries that tend to be well distributed across the tree, the Satyr Hill variety is the modern standard for landscape hollies. Male holly flowers have four yellow stamens extending from the center of the flower. When your order is received, plants are collected as soon as the weather permits. Person Co., NC 4/1/06. Bark is smooth and light-gray. Grow it in a well-drained soil, but keep the soil moist. It can also be dyed and used as a substitute for ebony. For a quote on larger quantities, please call or email us. When bearing fruit, Miss Courtney holly branches appear pendulous from the shear volumne of berries. This fact is evident given that its native range extends from Massachusetts to Florida to Texas. When you go for a walk in our local forests, you’re sure to see a medium tall evergreen tree in the understory. If you see berries, your job is done. In these characteristics, the Judy Evans grades well. The berries are reputedly poisonous to humans, but are important survival food for birds, who will eat the berries after other food sources are exhausted. Infloreescence is staminate a cyme, and pistillate single. If at any time your order must be delayed for weather concerns, we will advise you by phone. The holly was Orton’s first release as part of the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station during the 1970s. Some nurseries or suppliers sell only female-flowering hollies. These evergreen leaves are 2 to 4 inches long and less than 2 inches wide. The tree is equally stunning as an individual specimen. It is a deer-resistant tree. While it can grow in partial shade, you will achieve denser growth if you give it full sun. American Holly is dioecious, forming male (staminate) and female (pistillate) flowers on separate trees. The holly was one of the first trees released with the Rutgers New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station during the 1970s. They recognized American Holly as an obvious substitute for their English holly (Ilex aquifolium) holiday traditions, and decorative and landscape usage soon exploded. Dr. Elwin Orton of Rutgers University developed the cultivar. Berry distribution is best by late October and retained through winter. It has a density of 0.58 to 0.64. The tree has a beautiful curl to its leaf, which makes for a wonderful display in groups. There are spineless and yellow-fruited forms of both species. Today the popularity of the American Holly is as strong as ever. The only exception to this rule is the Croonenburg Holly, which is allegedly monoecious (both male and female). This species is affected by many problems including holly leaf miner, bud moth, scales, beetles, whitefly, berry midge, southern red mite, tar spot, leaf spots, cankers, bacterial blight, twig die back, spot anthracnose, leaf rot, leaf drop, powdery mildews, spine spot (nonparasitic) and leaf scorch (physiological); leaf miner and scale are particularly troublesome. This plant is shade tolerant. For me the best way to tell them apart is by the older leaves. Flower Description: The American Holly is dioecious (male and female flowers are on separate trees). The branches are short and slender. American holly Legal Status. This particular cultivar was found as a volunteer seedling and developed originally at McLean Nurseries in Towson, Maryland by Stewart McLean. This range of habitats and conditions means the American Holly does not take great risks in its habit of growth. When it comes to prized American Holly features, the cultivar is possibly the best all around cultivar. Its Holly Society of America registration number is 1-98. Place plant in hole and fill, compacting the fill dirt. Prices for Miss Courtney American Holly trees 3 to 8 inches with shipping included. They are mildly toxic to an adult. Ilex opaca is a medium-sized broadleaved evergreen tree growing on average to 10–20 m (33–66 ft) tall, and up to 30 m (98 ft) tall. Holly trees feature simple alternate leaves that are oval in shape and which feature points along the edges. We inspire people to plant, nurture, and celebrate trees. Size: Up … And make sure that your American Holly doesn't … Male trees produce axillary clusters of 3-12 male flowers on peduncles about 1" long. The Edward J. Stevens holly is often marketed as the male companion cultivar to the Nellie R. Stevens holly; however, the two plants are distinct cultivars - i.e. dwarf forms such as 'Cardinal Hedge', a female plant growing to 1.2 m tall), and color and abundance of fruit (notable female cultivars including the large-berried 'Yule', and the yellow-berried 'Canary' and 'Morgan Gold').[5]. Often, holly plants are named or marked in a way that indicates whether the holly produces male or female flowers. April to June. On first glance of the name, one might believe the origin of this cultivar was rooted in piracy. Ilex opaca, commonly called American holly, is an upright, pyramidal, evergreen tree that slowly matures to 15-30' in cultivation, but may reach 50' tall in the wild. Songbirds including thrushes, mockingbirds, catbirds, bluebirds and thrashers, as well as some gamebirds and mammals frequently feed on the berries. After all, as a yellow-berried American Holly, one could make any number of gold puns involving Captain Morgan. Examples of this practice are numerous, and put simply, the practice is amusing. The tree is remarkably easy to prune and shape. Water the plant heavily to seal soil around the roots and remove air pockets. [clarification needed] The sap is watery, and contains a bitter substance used as an herbal tonic. The holly was introduced in 1942 by Earle Dilatush of Bunting Nursery in New Jersey. Densely pyramidal in youth with branches to the ground, becoming in age open, irregular, and picturesque, high branching, the branches at a wide angle and contorted. Twigs are gray or brown. A good example of this is the variegated Highclere holly cultivars Golden King & Golden Queen.

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