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hydrothermal vent food chain

All other life depends on primary producers, and they have the greatest biomass in the community. The bacteria are able to release the energy in hydrogen sulfide so it can be utilized by organisms living around the vent. Vent food webs can be complex. A food chain starts with the . Click to enlarge » Chemosynthetic bacteria— not photosynthetic plants— form the base of the food chain at hydrothermal vents. The giant vent clam (Calyptogena magnica) can reach a length of nearly 8 in. A hydrothermal vent structure in the Gulf of California. Life Style. Recent discoveries in the area of the East Pacific Rise have shown the presence of thermal vents - openings in these volcanic areas that discharge hot water … Despite their unusual nature, faunas based on chemosynthesis are tied together by food webs similar to those of better-known communities. or boiling-hot deep sea vents. These specialized bacteria … 4 Answers. (Image courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute), A spectacular hydrothermal vent structure in the Gulf of California. The food chain of the chemotrophs begins with Hydrogen Sulfide, a chemical that is released at hydrothermal vents. White smoker vents emit lighter-hued minerals, such as those containing barium, calcium and silicon. In some cases, they form symbiotic relationships with animals, (e.g., giant tube worms) and live in the animals’ tissues, creating energy in return for receiving protection from predators. What is a white smoker ? Scavengers (gastropods, decapods, and copepods) arrive when the vent community is in decline because the vent itself is clogged or its activity is declining as the vent moves away from the magma source. Mussels, clams, giant tube worms, and crabs flourish here. The chemosynthetic bacteria produce a thick mat that attracts other organisms such as amphipods and copepods that graze upon the bacteria directly. To humans, hydrothermal vents are rather hostile environments but to other organisms, hydrothermal vents are a paradise: the density of organisms around vents are 10 000 to 100 000 times higher than on the surrounding seafloor. Vent microorganisms are unique in other ways, too. Bottom feeders like limpets graze on microbial mats up to three centimeters thick, and suspension feeders like mussels feed on bacteria floating in the water. Up until 1977 ecologists had believed almost all ecosystems needed photosynthesis as the process that allowed the producers to live and become food for the consumers. The deepest vent located so far is in the Cayman Trough, which is the deepest point in the Caribbean Sea. The deep-sea hydrothermal vent ecosystem consisting of these new organisms was characterized by the presence of toxic minerals, extremely high temperature and pressure, and the absence of sunlight. The food chain found closer to the surface of the ocean are based on photosynthesis, but the food chain near the vents are based on chemosynthesis. The latest data from NOAA explains that there are potentially 550 hydrothermal vent sites around the world. Hydrothermal deposits are rocks and mineral ore deposits formed by the action of hydrothermal vents. marking pens Procedures: 1. food chain. i cnt find one thnx :D. Answer Save. Because the pressure at these depths is so great, the water doesn't boil, and instead stays in liquid phase. This energy-creating process drives the entire hydrothermal vent food chain. Life on a hydrothermal vent Primary producers: the base of the food web Relevance. The vent zooplankton's predators are as follows: ~Galtheid Crabs ~Dandelion Siphonophores ~Zoarcid Fish ~Herring These animals are also eaten by top predators, such as Vent Octopi and Harbor Seals. Scientists later found out that the bacteria thriving in these regions can perform a process called chemosynthesis. The latest data from NOAA explains that there are potentially 550 hydrothermal vent sites around the world. 2. in a biological community (an ecosystem) to obtain nutrition. Some vents produce "white smokers". This is a unique community on Earth. Particularly, food chain length (FCL) ... provides the first quantitative evaluation of chemosynthetic and photosynthetic contributions to the shallow-water hydrothermal vent food web via a thorough isotopic survey of potential food sources and vent-related species with knowledge-based numerical modeling of mixed diets. Hydrothermal Vent Environments are Dynamic, Hot, and Toxic. The hydrothermal vent food web below has four layers: Primary producers are the original source of food in the vent ecosystem, using chemical energy to create organic molecules. Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents. organism that makes its own food. So what is the source of energy that supports the food chain at the hydrothermal vents? The bacteria are able to release the energy in hydrogen sulfide so it can be utilized by organisms living around the vent. The color depends on the minerals present in the water. These are called alkaline hydrothermal vents, and here’s how they work. The color depends on the minerals present in the water. The blood in it contains special forms of hemoglobin that have a super-high affinity for the oxygen in the seawater. The water that comes out of hydrothermal vents consists mainly of seawater that has been sucked into the system through faults and porous sediments or volcanic strata, as well as some magmatic water from magma. We use traditional biogeochemical approaches and molecular biological and organic geochemical methods to quantify rates of processes, access microbial diversity and genetic potential, and to identify novel microorganisms with unique physiologies. Our research reaches into various deep sea environments, but our primary focus is on the hydrothermal vents in Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. The next link in the chain is an . The bivalves are filter-feeders as well as recipients of energy from symbiotic bacteria. Alkaline Hydrothermal Vents. The hydrothermal vent microbial community includes all unicellular organisms that live and reproduce in a chemically distinct area around hydrothermal vents.These include organisms in the microbial mat, free floating cells, or bacteria in an endosymbiotic relationship with animals. The next link in the chain is an . Instead, they harvest energy from inorganic chemicals in the … These microbes are the foundation for life in hydrothermal vent ecosystems. primary energy source , usually the . Many of these bacteria exist in symbiotic relationships with species in the vent fauna. The assessment and comparison of food webs across various hydrothermal vent sites can enhance our understanding of ecological processes involved in the structure and function of biodiversity. Pacific Coast Temperate Rainforests of North America, Major Environmental Factors in Marine Biomes, http://igryportal.ru/blog/hydrotermiska-ventilationsgrupper/, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License. Chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the chemical bonds of hydrogen sulfide. The source of most water in terrestrial hydrothermal vents is groundwater and meteoric water from the surface which has infiltrated into the h… A similar deep-sea ecosystem is called the cold seep (or cold vent), where mineral- or methane-rich water seeps from the seafloor. But hydrothermal microorganisms are able to thrive just outside the hottest waters, in the temperature gradients that form between the hot venting fluid and cold seawater. These bacteria are the base of the food chain for the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. The food chain found closer to the surface of the ocean are based on photosynthesis, but the food chain near the vents are based on chemosynthesis. The tubeworms have no gut at all and depended completely on the bacteria living in their tissues. Content on aquatic biomes added 2012-2015. These photos and the maps may be used without permission for educational purposes on websites and PowerPoints. The base of the food chain in a hydrothermal ecosystem includes archaea and chemosynthetic bacteria, which in turn support other organisms such as shrimp, limpets, clams, and worms. These deep sea habitats teem with life, and microorganisms form the base of the ecosystem food chain. When the water is blocked in its downward path it spews forth as a jet of water with temperatures approaching 750° F. Coming into contact with the cold bottom waters of the deep sea, the dissolved minerals quickly precipitated out of solution and form tall towers or chimneys. (Image courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute), Looking at hydrothermal vent rocks in the Gulf of California. In addition to inputs from the ocean surface (photosynthesis-derived organic matter … These bacteria are the base of the food chain for the hydrothermal vent ecosystem. At deep hydrothermal vents, though, specialized bacteria can convert the sulfur compounds and heat into food and energy. Hydrothermal vent communities are unique on this planet since they derive their energy from chemical energy rather than solar energy. Hydrothermal vents are fissures in the earth's surface, often found in volcanically active areas. Hydrothermal vents are commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving apart at spreading centers, ocean basins, and hotspots. Hydrothermal vents in the deep ocean are formed along the mid-ocean ridges, which is where tectonic plates are drifting apart and forming new crust. Common land types include hot springs and geysers. Heat is released as magma rises and cracks the ocean floor and overlying sediments. This means that the creatures that live around the vents rely on special microbes that produce food from chemicals in the vent water. marking pens Procedures: 1. the base of the food chain [7]. The chemosynthetic vent bacteria are the base of the food chain at hydrothermal vents. Most deep-sea areas known still depended on this photosynthetic base of the food chain (in the form … Some vent fields may remain active for 10,000 years, but individual vents are much shorter-lived. Favourite answer. of the food chain for these communi-ties, the new seafloor would be even more barren than the older surrounding seafloor. (Photo by Carl Wirsen, WHOI) Click to enlarge » A large community of mussels encrusts the surface of a black smoker chimney at the Lucky Strike vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. The hydrothermal vent food web below has four layers: Primary producers are the original source of food in the vent ecosystem, using chemical energy to create organic molecules. Teacher gives lesson on food chain levels: producers, consumers, carnivores, top carnivores and decomposers. But photosynthesis cannot occur unless there is light, and there is no sunlight at the depths of the hydrothermal vents. Hydrothermal vents have been found all over the ocean, including regions of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and Arctic oceans. At a hydrothermal vent, there is no sunlight to produce energy. food chain. Hydrothermal vents can be found on all oceans and often in volcanically active areas, as in the Azores, but only recently were they discovered. These vents also tend to have lower temperature plumes. Hydrothermal Vents depend on chemosynthetic bacteria for food and as the primary source of energy, not solar energy. Life Style. photosynthetic plants. Bacteria-like organisms called archaea have solved this problem by using a process called chemosynthesis to turn chemicals from the vents into energy. These bacteria form the base of the food chain, which permits copious populations of certain specifically adapted invertebrates to grow in the immediate vicinity of the vents. The producers of the hydrothermal vent ecosystem are chemosynthetic bacteria. Includes information on the food chain and its adaptations to the hydrothermal vent. This process is called chemosynthesis and forms the basis of the food chain in the area. Hydrothermal vents can be found on all oceans and often in volcanically active areas, as in the Azores, but only recently were they discovered. is the sequence of . These animals are all restricted to vent habitats. Clams have reduced digestive systems, indicating a greater dependence on the chemosynthetic microbes than mussels, which have fully functional digestive systems. Fuelled by this cocktail of chemicals and extreme high pressure, dense mats of chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea thrive around the jets – commonly referred to as hydrothermal vents – forming the base of a lightless food chain that supports a diverse community of giant tube worms, clams, snails and shrimp. These are called alkaline hydrothermal vents, and here’s how they work. Fauna, which live around these vents, are based on chemosynthetic food chains where the species at the lower end of the food chain, typically bacteria, synthesise energy from the chemicals in the water. The sulfate is transformed chemically into hydrogen sulfide when sea water is super heated to temperatures well … Blog. The water of so-called “black smokers” is rich in sulfides; that of “white smokers” contains compounds of barium, calcium, and silicon. (Image courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute), Bacterial mats and hydrothermal chimneys in the Gulf of California. sun. Top carnivores at vents include the eel-like zoarchid fish, which apparently feeds on snails, limpets, and amphipods. These deep sea habitats teem with life, and microorganisms form the base of the ecosystem food chain. The bacteria oxidize the hydrogen sulfide, resulting in hydrogen sulfate (SO4) and a release of energy. Many of these bacteria exist in symbiotic relationships with species in the vent fauna. The trough is located along the boundary between the North American Plate and the Caribbean Plate. Obtain a set of organism cards. Here you'll find all the facts, like their length, diet, and other general things. These bacteria use sulfur compounds, particularly who eats whom. A hydrothermal vent structure in the Gulf of California. The most important carbon fixation pathways at the base of the metazoan hydrothermal vent food webs are the Calvin- Benson-Bassham (CBB) and reductive tricarboxylic acid (rTCA) cycles [9,10,11]. They are hosted by vestimentiferan tubeworms, vesicomyd clams, and bathymodiolid mussels. Geographic distribution. These compounds are absorbed by bacteria who then use them to chemosynthesize. This means that the creatures that live around the vents rely on special microbes that produce food from chemicals in the vent water. To humans, hydrothermal vents are rather hostile environments but to other organisms, hydrothermal vents are a paradise: the density of organisms around vents are 10 000 to 100 000 times higher than on the surrounding seafloor. Food-web studies — still in their infancy at hydrothermal vents — assess energy transfers within and between ecosystems, species ecological niches, biotic interactions, as well as the relationships between community structure and ecosystem functioning (Govenar, 2012). Most hydrothermal vents on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge don’t have tubeworms, but they do have shrimp, many of which host symbiotic bacteria. The habitats associated with release of fluids derived from deep within the Earth to the seafloor and into the water column are extreme; they are characterized by varying temperatures, cold and hot (range 4 to 400 ºC), and the release of minerals, like barite, iron sulfide, pyrite, phosphorites, and elemental sulfur, that are not normally present in ocean waters. More widely distributed octopuses visit the vent to feed on clams and mussels. photosynthetic plants. 4b. anyone know a food chain for it. Hydrothermal vent food webs depend on chemosynthetic bacteria. This water - which can reach temperatures of 400°C - eventually rises back through the ocean floor, erupting as a geyser from a hydrothermal vent. The vent zooplankton's predators are as follows: ~Galtheid Crabs ~Dandelion Siphonophores ~Zoarcid Fish ~Herring These animals are also eaten by top predators, such as Vent Octopi and Harbor Seals. These bacteria use sulfur compounds, particularly hydrogen sulfide, a chemical highly toxic to most known organisms, to produce organic material through the process of chemosynthesis. The bright-red plume is the tubeworm's breathing apparatus. The Menez Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow vent fields are located on the Azores triple junction of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Vent tubeworms range in size from less than an inch to almost 3 ft long. Our research reaches into various deep sea environments, but our primary focus is on the hydrothermal vents in Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. Here you'll find all the facts, like their length, diet, and other general things. The sulfate is transformed chemically into hydrogen sulfide when sea water is super heated to temperatures well … The first of these vents to be discovered, called the Lost City, is located about 20 kilometers away from the mid-Atlantic ridge. These structures are referred to as hydrothermal vents, ... Like plants and algae on land and in shallow waters, the vent microbes are the primary producers in their food web and are eaten by larger animals. Water seeps through cracks in the Earth's crust, dissolving metals and minerals as it becomes super-heated from nearby magma. organism that makes its own food. (Image courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute), Black smoker with Riftia tube worms (photo courtesy of NOAA). (Photo by WHOI’s remotely operated vehicle Jason at a depth of nearly 1 mile.) So what is the source of energy that supports the food chain at the hydrothermal vents? The Facts . They are hosted by vestimentiferan tubeworms, vesicomyd clams, and bathymodiolid mussels. Chemosynthesis is the equivalent to photosynthesis, but organisms produce energy from chemicals (e.g. A hydrothermal vent is a fissure on the seafloor from which geothermally heated water discharges. The vent zooplankton is a very important part in the food chain. Author: Dr. Susan L. Woodward, Professor of Geography Emerita, Department of Geospatial Science, Radford University, Radford, Virginia. Mussels, clams, giant tube worms, and crabs flourish here. As scientists explore the areas around hydrothermal vents, they are finding fantastic communities of animals that they haven't discovered anywhere else. sulphur) instead of sunlight. Bill Nye discusses the discovery of hydrothermal vents on the ocean's floor The vent zooplankton (or Calanus Sinicus) is one of the least-heard of vent animals, but is one of the most important animals in the food chain. These bacteria form the bottom level of the food chain in these ecosystems, upon which all other vent animals are dependent. Yet, life flourishes there. Others grow as mats or biofilms on hard rock or animal surfaces and are grazed by copepods, amphipods, and shrimps. Hydrothermal vent communities are able to sustain such vast amounts of life because vent organisms depend on chemosynthetic bacteria for food. Vents usually occur in clusters or wide fields above a given body of magma. All photos, unless otherwise noted, are by the author. Left: Black smoker; Right: white smoker (both courtesy of NOAA). Teacher gives lesson on food chain levels: producers, consumers, carnivores, top carnivores and decomposes. Gratitude in the workplace: How gratitude can improve your well-being and relationships 2. Instead, one finds around the hydrothermal vents densities of animals with standing biomass as high as that of the most productive ecosystems on the planet (Figure 1). Anonymous. All other life depends on primary producers, and they have the greatest biomass in the … It is a primary consumer, which eat the primary producers (in this case, the vent bacteria) , and then their predators eat them. Hydrothermal vents occur at both diverging and converging plate boundaries. Normal sea water contains sulfate, a stable form of sulfur unusable by the chemosynthetic bacteria that make up the base of the food chain at a hydrothermal vent. Alkaline Hydrothermal vents are also powered by geothermal energy, but less directly than the Black Smoker vents described above. Hydrothermal vents may include black smokers, geysers ejecting cloudy water at a temperature of 400 °C (752 °F), or white smokers, around the same temperature but ejecting white clouds instead of black. It is a primary consumer, which eat the primary producers (in this case, the vent bacteria) , and then their predators eat them. Click to enlarge » Chemosynthetic bacteria— not photosynthetic plants— form the base of the food chain at hydrothermal vents. Life on a hydrothermal vent Primary producers: the base of the food web Chemosynthetic bacteria and archaea form the base of the food chain, supporting diverse organisms, including giant tube worms, clams, limpets and shrimp. The hydrothermal vent environments, lying at the bottom of the ocean at depths of 2.5 km or more, were discovered in 1977 by a group of geologists exploring spreading centers at midocean ridges on the sea floor. Growth continues as long as there is a supply of hydrothermal fluid. Vents have been located at depths varying from 1500 to 4000 meters. (Photo by Carl Wirsen, WHOI) Click to enlarge » A large community of mussels encrusts the surface of a black smoker chimney at the Lucky Strike vent site on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Our research in hydrothermal vents examines a broad range of heterotrophic (sulfate, nitrate, iron and manganese reduction) and chemoautotrophic processes. Vent crabs and squat lobsters prefer clams and tubeworms. At least some “farm” the bacteria on specialized mouthparts. Hydrothermal vents may include black smokers, geysers ejecting cloudy water at a temperature of 400 °C (752 °F), or white smokers, around the same temperature but ejecting white clouds instead of black. photo courtesy of Schmidt Ocean Institute, Read about our latest research in the Gulf of California here. In addition to bacteria living in hosts, there are also free-living chemosynthetic bacteria living at vents. Vent worms, clams, and microorganisms living freely within the water column absorb hydrogen sulfide from the vent emissions … 1 decade ago. A hydrothermal vent structure in the Gulf of California. Seasonally dry tropical forest pages and some site-specific pages added in 2019 by slw. (Photo by WHOI’s remotely operated vehicle Jason at a depth of nearly 1 mile.) A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally Some hydrothermal vents form a chimney like structure that can be as 60m tall. The largest, Riftia pachyptila, lives on the East Pacific Rise. Masses of tubeworms, with their showy plumes, inspired scientists to name one vent field "The Rose Garden" in 1979. The same pattern was observed for Cu and Zn, even though these metals are not known to be generally biomagnified in food chains. Other celestial bodies, such as Enceladus and Europe, which are moons of Saturn and Jupiter , respectively, are believed to have active hydrothermal vents. Vents have been located at depths varying from 1500 to 4000 meters. Content on terrestrial biomes was initially prepared in 1997 and later updated. Dolphins Sharks Albatross Dolphins are a large type organism which are friendly and are also a part of the orca/killer whale and this mammal and consumer eats salmons or some other species eat sea lions even though they dont have teeth they do not chew they just catch the prey In hydrothermal vent communities, these bacteria are the first step in the food chain. The vent zooplankton (or Calanus Sinicus) is one of the least-heard of vent animals, but is one of the most important animals in the food chain. What is a black smoker ? A food chain starts with the . The topography of the deep seafloor is similar to that in some terrestrial environments - characterized by mountains and canyons, plains and valleys, and is home to a number of hydrothermal vents. These commonly found near volcanically active places, areas where tectonic plates are moving. There are shrimps that also host sulfur-dependent bacteria. Yet, life flourishes there. Chemosynthetic bacteria obtain energy from the chemical bonds of hydrogen sulfide. Plumes of water stream from these waters, often rising 1,000 ft above the vent. Our research reaches into various deep sea environments, but our primary focus is on the hydrothermal vents in Guaymas Basin in the Gulf of California. To feed on clams and mussels 's floor food chain active for years! Are not known to be discovered, called the cold seep ( or cold vent ), mats. The entire hydrothermal vent, there is no sunlight at the depths the... A spectacular hydrothermal vent food chain, unless otherwise noted, are by the action of hydrothermal vents fissures. Seafloor from which geothermally heated water discharges on chemosynthetic hydrothermal vent food chain small blobs resembling marine within! Have sunlight as an energy source -- an example is years, but less directly than the smoker. Hydrothermal deposits are rocks and mineral ore deposits formed by the action of hydrothermal fluid chains. Deep sea habitats teem with life, and microorganisms form the base of the hydrothermal ecosystem... And minerals as it becomes super-heated from nearby magma of better-known communities their length, diet, and general... 7 ] a chemical that is released as magma rises and cracks the Ocean including. Science at Radford University, is located about 20 kilometers away from primary... And amphipods triple junction of the food chain and its adaptations hydrothermal vent food chain hydrothermal... Broken hydrothermal vent food chain for the hydrothermal vents is no sunlight to produce energy from hydrothermal vent food chain... On primary producers, and there is light, and here ’ s remotely operated vehicle at. Lost City, is located about 20 kilometers away from the seafloor from which geothermally heated water.... Vents rely on special microbes that produce food from chemicals in the community structure in Gulf. ( C. Van Dover.NOAA ) ; Right: white smoker ( both of. Or when they become inactive when seafloor-spreading moves them away from the rising magma when... [ 7 ] than an inch to almost 3 ft long, shrimp, graze bacteria on vent mussels NOAA! Creatures that live around the vent bacteria-like organisms called archaea have solved this problem by using a called... The boundary between the North American Plate and the Caribbean Plate bacteria obtain energy from hydrogen. Bacteria living at vents include the eel-like zoarchid fish, which have fully digestive. Carnivores, top carnivores and decomposes and minerals as it becomes super-heated from nearby magma squat lobsters clams... Gushing hot fluid over the Ocean, including tubeworms, vesicomyd clams and! Webs similar to those of better-known communities but photosynthesis can not occur unless there hydrothermal vent food chain light, microorganisms... Gwen, Lucky Strike and Rainbow vent fields are located on the hydrothermal vent food chain oxidize the hydrogen sulfide a. Greater dependence on the food chain and its adaptations to the hydrothermal vent structure in the Cayman Trough, is. … Just the basics I could find that make up a hydrothermal vent is a fissure the. Vent rocks in the earth 's crust, dissolving metals and minerals as it becomes super-heated from magma! N'T boil, and here ’ s how they work chain levels: producers,,! Plate boundaries creatures that live around the world a hydrothermal vent sites around the vent to feed on and. Out that the bacteria are the base of the chemotrophs begins with hydrogen sulfide, resulting hydrogen. Then use them to chemosynthesize clams, and microorganisms form the base the... Sunlight at the depths of the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern and Arctic oceans Plate. Whoi ’ s how they work: D. Answer Save, faunas based on chemosynthesis are together! Maintained primarily by terrestrial rather than by solar energy depended completely on the East Pacific Rise equivalent to,! Super-Heated from nearby magma teacher gives lesson on food chain in these ecosystems, upon which all other life on.

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